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Its name may have come form the Arab Maharama, meaning a group of farms.
The numerous remains discovered seem to indicate that the first settlements date back to the Chalcolithic.
During the period of Al-Andalus the castle, which still exists, was built.
The Christian conquest was undertaken by Ferdinand III in 1247.
Alphonso XI ceded Mairena del Alcor to the Duke of Osuna in 1342. The latter built his palace in the town. Later it passed to the marqués de Cádiz, Rodrigo Ponce de León, who rebuilt the castle.
The town grew considerably between the 18th and 19th centuries.
Manolo Mairena, singer and song-writer.
Antonio Gavira Alba, sculptor.
José María del Rey, writer.
Calixto Sánchez Marín, singer and song-writer.