Monturque is located in the south of the province, among the olive and cereal fields and vineyards which abound in this rich agricultural area.
The irregularly-shaped town stands atop a low hill and is dominated by the majestic tower of the old Arabic castle, built on the site of Roman constructions of which many traces still survive, such as the Reservoirs and the remains of a large public building found at Los Paseillos.
Monturque is derived from a Mozarabic name meaning "rocky mountain".
It was an important town in Roman times, as can be seen from the numerous archaeological discoveries made here. It was also important in Arab times, until it was captured by Ferdinand III in 1240, after which it became known as Monturqueto.
Two years later it received the same royal charter as Cordoba and in 1340, in recognition of the contribution made by its men in the Battle of El Salado, Alfonso XI granted Monturque's residents the privilege of toll-free passage along all of the highways of Castile, in addition to the honorary title of Loyal Town. In 1353, Peter the Cruel gave the castle to don Martin Lopez de Córdoba. In 1377, Henry II ceded it to don Gonzalo Fernández of Córdoba, and Monturque was joined with Aguilar.
It was repopulated in 1455 and later families from Lucena, Montilla and other locations settled here.
During the War of Succession, it was loyal to Philip V, who declared Monturque a Loyal Town. It also played an important role in the guerrilla wars waged against the French invaders in Cordoba.
Luis Herrera de Lara, member of Philip III's Royal CounciI.
Juan Barroso, captain of the army which conquered Mexico.
San Juan de Alba, Bishop of Cuzco in the 17th century.
Sister Reverenda Mariana de la Ascension, abbess of the Clarissan Convent in Seville in the 17th century.